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Exploração e liquidação de Delaware

Exploração e liquidação de Delaware


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O início da história de Delaware é um conflito entre as forças holandesas e inglesas, com os suecos desempenhando um papel menor. A reivindicação holandesa para a área foi estabelecida em 1609 por Henry Hudson quando ele navegou para a Baía de Delaware em sua busca por uma Passagem do Noroeste. Argall nomeou um dos promontórios em homenagem ao governador da Virgínia De La Warr, um nome mais tarde contratado e aplicado a um rio, uma baía, uma tribo nativa americana e a colônia como um todo.Em 1623, a Companhia Holandesa das Índias Ocidentais começou seu envolvimento no Novo Mundo e demonstrou claramente uma preferência por empreendimentos comerciais em vez de assentamentos. O ex-governador de Nova Amsterdã, Peter Minuit, recebeu apoio sueco em 1638 para estabelecer o Forte Christina na Nova Suécia, uma colônia incipiente (perto de Wilmington).

Os interesses holandeses na área aumentaram em 1651, quando Peter Stuyvesant, de New Amsterdam, construiu o Fort Casimir (perto do New Castle). Três anos depois, as forças suecas realizaram um ataque surpresa e tomaram o forte, apenas para perdê-lo de volta para os holandeses em 1655, quando Stuyvesant capturou toda a Nova Suécia.

O controle holandês em Delaware durou apenas cerca de 10 anos. O duque de York (mais tarde James II) conquistou toda a área, incluindo New Netherland, em 1664. Um breve retorno holandês ao poder em 1673 foi importante principalmente porque os "três condados inferiores", hoje New Castle, Kent e Sussex, começaram ser considerada uma área distinta das vizinhas.

Em 1682, o duque deu os três condados a William Penn, que forneceu à sua colônia uma fachada para o oceano Atlântico. Muitos residentes se ressentiram com a mudança porque consideravam a Pensilvânia um leito de radicalismo, mas foram apaziguados pela decisão de Penn de dar aos três condados representação igual na assembléia. À medida que a Pensilvânia crescia, os condados temiam a perda de influência. Penn respondeu em 1701, concedendo-lhes uma nova carta autorizando a instituição de uma assembléia separada. A primeira assembléia se reuniu em 1704, mas a área permaneceu sob o controle do governador da Pensilvânia até 1776.

Penn e Lord Baltimore de Maryland disputaram os limites de Delaware durante anos. Na década de 1760, as fronteiras foram pesquisadas pelos cientistas ingleses Charles Mason e Jeremiah Dixon.


Veja também a história antiga da Pensilvânia.


A colônia de Delaware

Os holandeses fundaram o primeiro assentamento europeu em Delaware em Lewes (então chamado de Zwaanendael) em 1631. Eles rapidamente estabeleceram um comércio de peles de castor com os nativos americanos, que em pouco tempo invadiram e destruíram o assentamento após um desacordo entre os dois grupos . Um assentamento permanente não foi estabelecido até 1638 - pelos suecos em Fort Christina (agora Wilmington) como parte de sua colônia na Nova Suécia, eles supostamente ergueram as primeiras cabanas de toras da América lá. Os holandeses de Nova Amsterdã (Nova York) derrotaram os suecos em 1655, e os ingleses tomaram a colônia dos holandeses em 1664. Depois disso, exceto por uma breve reconquista holandesa em 1673, Delaware foi administrado como parte de Nova York até 1682, quando o duque de York (o futuro Jaime II) cedeu-o a William Penn, que o queria para que sua colônia da Pensilvânia pudesse ter acesso ao oceano. Embora Penn tenha tentado unir os condados de Delaware com a Pensilvânia, ambos os lados se ressentiram da união. Em 1704, ele permitiu a Delaware uma montagem própria. Pensilvânia e Delaware compartilharam um governador nomeado até a Revolução Americana. Somente em 1776 o nome Delaware - derivado de Thomas West, 12º barão de la Warr, governador da Virgínia - tornou-se oficial, embora tivesse sido aplicado à baía em 1610 e gradualmente depois às terras vizinhas.

Durante a propriedade da família Penn, membros da Sociedade de Amigos (Quakers) vieram para a parte norte de Delaware porque era perto da Filadélfia e oferecia boas terras para cultivo. Os mercadores quacres estabeleceram a cidade de Wilmington em 1739. Outro grupo de recém-chegados foram os escoceses-irlandeses, que trouxeram com eles sua religião presbiteriana e ênfase na educação. Em 1743, Francis Alison, um ministro presbiteriano, fundou uma escola que se tornou a base para a posterior Universidade de Delaware. O sul de Delaware era povoado em grande parte por ingleses, muitos vindos da vizinha Maryland, e por africanos, que foram apresentados como escravos para limpar a terra e trabalhar nas fazendas. No final do século 18, pregadores metodistas itinerantes encontraram muitos convertidos entre os habitantes negros e brancos do sul de Delaware.


Conteúdo

Em meados do século 17, o Reino da Suécia havia atingido sua maior extensão territorial e era uma das grandes potências da Europa. A Suécia então incluiu a Finlândia e a Estônia, junto com partes da moderna Rússia, Polônia, Alemanha e Letônia sob o rei Gustavo Adolfo e mais tarde Cristina. Os suecos procuraram expandir sua influência criando uma plantação (tabaco) e uma colônia de comércio de peles para contornar os mercadores franceses e ingleses. [ citação necessária ]

A Swedish South Company foi fundada em 1626 com o mandato de estabelecer colônias entre a Flórida e Newfoundland para fins comerciais, principalmente ao longo do rio Delaware. Seu estatuto incluía acionistas suecos, holandeses e alemães liderados por diretores da New Sweden Company, incluindo Samuel Blommaert. [3] [4] A empresa patrocinou 11 expedições em 14 viagens separadas para Delaware entre 1638 e 1655, duas delas não sobreviveram.

A primeira expedição sueca à América partiu do porto de Gotemburgo no final de 1637, organizada e supervisionada por Clas Fleming, um almirante sueco da Finlândia. O holandês flamengo Samuel Blommaert ajudou no preparo e nomeou Peter Minuit (o ex-governador de Nova Amsterdã) para liderar a expedição. A expedição navegou para a Baía de Delaware a bordo do Fogel Grip e Kalmar Nyckel, que ficava dentro do território reivindicado pelos holandeses. Eles passaram por Cape May e Cape Henlopen no final de março de 1638 [5] e ancoraram em 29 de março em um ponto rochoso em Minquas Kill que é conhecido hoje como Swedish's Landing. Eles construíram um forte em Wilmington, ao qual deram o nome de Fort Christina em homenagem à Rainha Cristina. [6]

Nos anos seguintes, a área foi colonizada por 600 suecos e finlandeses, vários holandeses, alguns alemães, um dinamarquês e pelo menos um estoniano, [7] e Minuit se tornou o primeiro governador da colônia da Nova Suécia. Ele havia sido o terceiro diretor de New Amsterdam e sabia que os holandeses reivindicaram a área ao sul do rio Delaware e sua baía. Os holandeses, no entanto, retiraram seus colonos da área depois de vários anos, a fim de se concentrarem no assentamento na ilha de Manhattan. [8]

O governador Minuit pousou na margem oeste do rio e reuniu os sachems dos Delawares e Susquehannocks. Eles realizaram um conclave na cabana de Minuit no Kalmar Nyckel, e ele os persuadiu a assinar atos que ele havia preparado para resolver qualquer problema com os holandeses. Os suecos alegaram que as terras compradas incluíam terras no lado oeste do rio South, logo abaixo do rio Schuylkill, na Filadélfia, sudeste da Pensilvânia, Delaware e o litoral de Maryland. Delaware sachem Mattahoon mais tarde afirmou que a compra incluía apenas a quantidade de terra contida em uma área marcada por "seis árvores", e o resto das terras ocupadas pelos suecos foram roubadas. [9]

Willem Kieft objetou ao desembarque dos suecos, mas Minuit o ignorou, pois sabia que os holandeses estavam militarmente fracos no momento. Minuit completou o Forte Christina em 1638 e então navegou para Estocolmo para trazer o segundo grupo de colonos. Ele fez um desvio para o Caribe para pegar um carregamento de tabaco para vender na Europa a fim de tornar a viagem lucrativa. No entanto, ele morreu nesta viagem durante um furacão em St. Christopher, no Caribe. As funções oficiais do governador da Nova Suécia foram desempenhadas pelo capitão Måns Nilsson Kling, até que um novo governador foi escolhido e chegou da Suécia dois anos depois. [10]

A empresa se expandiu ao longo do rio do Forte Christina sob a liderança de Johan Björnsson Printz, governador de 1643 a 1653. Eles estabeleceram o Forte Nya Elfsborg na margem leste do Delaware perto de Salem, Nova Jersey e o Forte Nya Gothenborg na Ilha Tinicum até o imediato sudoeste da Filadélfia. Ele também construiu sua mansão, o Printzhof, no Forte Nya Gothenborg, e a colônia sueca prosperou por um tempo. Em 1644, a Nova Suécia apoiou os Susquehannocks em sua guerra contra os colonos de Maryland. [11] Em maio de 1654, soldados da Nova Suécia liderados pelo governador Johan Risingh capturaram o Forte Casimir e o renomearam como Forte Trinity (Trefaldigheten em sueco). [ citação necessária ]

A Suécia abriu a Segunda Guerra do Norte no Báltico, atacando a Comunidade polonesa-lituana, e os holandeses enviaram um esquadrão armado de navios sob o comando do diretor-geral Peter Stuyvesant para tomar a Nova Suécia. No verão de 1655, os holandeses marcharam um exército até o rio Delaware, capturando facilmente o forte Trinity e o forte Christina. O assentamento sueco foi formalmente incorporado à Nova Holanda holandesa em 15 de setembro de 1655, embora os colonos suecos e finlandeses tenham recebido autonomia local. Eles mantiveram sua própria milícia, religião, tribunal e terras. [12] Isso durou até a conquista inglesa de New Netherland, lançada em 24 de junho de 1664. O duque de York vendeu New Jersey para John Berkeley e George Carteret para se tornar uma colônia proprietária, separada da colônia projetada de Nova York. A invasão começou em 29 de agosto de 1664 com a captura de New Amsterdam e terminou com a captura do Fort Casimir (New Castle, Delaware) em outubro. Isso aconteceu no início da Segunda Guerra Anglo-Holandesa. [13]

A Nova Suécia continuou a existir não oficialmente, e alguma imigração e expansão continuaram. O primeiro assentamento em Wicaco começou com uma fortificação de toras sueca localizada em Society Hill, na Filadélfia, em 1669. Mais tarde, foi usada como igreja até cerca de 1700, quando a Igreja Gloria Dei (suecos antigos) da Filadélfia foi construída no local. [14] A Nova Suécia finalmente chegou ao fim quando suas terras foram incluídas no alvará de William Penn para a Pensilvânia em 24 de agosto de 1682. [ citação necessária ]

Hoarkill, New Amstel e Upland Edit

O início da Terceira Guerra Anglo-Holandesa resultou na recaptura holandesa de New Netherland em agosto de 1673. Eles restauraram o status anterior à captura inglesa e o codificaram no estabelecimento de três condados: Condado de Hoarkill, [15] Condado de New Amstel , [15] e o Condado de Upland, que mais tarde foi dividido entre o Condado de New Castle, Delaware e a Colônia da Pensilvânia. [15] Os três condados foram criados em 12 de setembro de 1673, os dois primeiros na margem oeste do rio Delaware e o terceiro em ambas as margens do rio. [ citação necessária ]

O Tratado de Westminster de 1674 encerrou o segundo período de controle holandês e exigiu que eles devolvessem toda a Nova Holanda aos ingleses em 29 de junho, incluindo os três condados que criaram. Depois de fazer um balanço, os ingleses declararam em 11 de novembro que os assentamentos no lado oeste do rio Delaware e na baía de Delaware seriam dependentes da província de Nova York, incluindo os três condados. [17] Esta declaração foi seguida por uma declaração que renomeou New Amstel como New Castle. Os outros condados mantiveram seus nomes holandeses. [17]

O próximo passo na assimilação da Nova Suécia em Nova York foi a extensão das leis do duque para a região em 22 de setembro de 1676. [18] Isso foi seguido pela divisão de alguns condados de Upland para se conformar com as fronteiras da Pensilvânia e Delaware , com a maior parte da porção de Delaware indo para o condado de New Castle em 12 de novembro de 1678. [19] O restante de Upland continuou no local com o mesmo nome. Em 21 de junho de 1680, os condados de New Castle e Hoarkill foram divididos para produzir o condado de St. Jones. [20]

Em 4 de março de 1681, o que havia sido a colônia da Nova Suécia foi formalmente dividida nas colônias de Delaware e Pensilvânia. A fronteira foi estabelecida 12 milhas ao norte de New Castle, e o limite norte da Pensilvânia foi estabelecido em 42 graus de latitude norte. O limite leste era a fronteira com New Jersey no rio Delaware, enquanto o limite oeste era indefinido. [21] Em junho de 1681, Upland deixou de existir como resultado da reorganização da Colônia da Pensilvânia, com o governo de Upland se tornando o governo do Condado de Chester, Pensilvânia. [ citação necessária ]

Em 24 de agosto de 1682, o duque de York transferiu a região oeste do rio Delaware para William Penn, incluindo Delaware, transferindo assim o condado de Deale e o condado de St. Jones de Nova York para Delaware. O condado de St. Jones foi renomeado como Condado de Kent, o condado de Deale foi renomeado como Condado de Sussex e o condado de New Castle manteve seu nome. [22]

O historiador H. Arnold Barton sugeriu que o maior significado da Nova Suécia foi o forte e duradouro interesse pela América que a colônia gerou na Suécia, [23] embora a grande imigração sueca não tenha ocorrido até o final do século XIX. De 1870 a 1910, mais de um milhão de suecos chegaram à América, estabelecendo-se principalmente em Minnesota e outros estados do Alto Meio-Oeste. Traços da Nova Suécia persistem no vale do baixo Delaware, incluindo a Igreja da Santíssima Trindade em Wilmington, Delaware, a Igreja Gloria Dei e a Igreja St. James Kingsessing na Filadélfia, a Igreja Episcopal da Trindade em Swedesboro, Nova Jersey e a Igreja de Cristo em Swedesburg, Pensilvânia. Todas essas igrejas são comumente conhecidas como "Igreja dos Antigos Suecos". [24] Christiana, Delaware é um dos poucos assentamentos na área com um nome sueco, e Upland sobrevive como Upland, Pensilvânia. A estrada de Swedesford ainda é encontrada nos condados de Chester e Montgomery, na Pensilvânia, embora Swedesford tenha se tornado Norristown há muito tempo. O American Swedish Historical Museum no sul da Filadélfia abriga muitas exposições, documentos e artefatos da colônia da Nova Suécia. [25]

Talvez a maior contribuição da Nova Suécia para o desenvolvimento do Novo Mundo seja a técnica tradicional de construção de casas florestais finlandesas. Os colonos da Nova Suécia trouxeram com eles a cabana de toras, que se tornou um ícone da fronteira americana que é comumente considerada uma estrutura americana. [26] [27] A casa de toras C. A. Nothnagle na estrada Swedesboro-Paulsboro em Gibbstown, New Jersey é uma das mais antigas casas de toras sobreviventes nos Estados Unidos. [28] [29]

Os colonos vieram de todo o reino sueco. A porcentagem de finlandeses na Nova Suécia cresceu especialmente no final do período de colonização. [30] Os finlandeses compunham 22 por cento da população durante o domínio sueco e aumentaram para cerca de 50 por cento depois que a colônia ficou sob o domínio holandês. [31] Um contingente de 140 finlandeses chegou em 1664. O navio Mercurius navegou para a colônia em 1665, e 92 dos 106 passageiros foram listados como finlandeses. A memória do antigo assentamento finlandês sobreviveu em nomes de lugares próximos ao rio Delaware, como Finlândia (Marcus Hook), Torne, Lapônia, Finns Point, Mullica Hill e Mullica River. [32]

Uma parte desses finlandeses era conhecida como Forest Finns, pessoas de descendência finlandesa que viviam nas áreas florestais da Suécia Central. Os finlandeses da floresta haviam se mudado de Savonia, no leste da Finlândia, para Dalarna, Bergslagen e outras províncias na região central da Suécia durante o final do século 16 a meados do século 17. Sua realocação havia começado como parte de um esforço do rei sueco Gustav Vasa para expandir a agricultura para essas partes desabitadas do país. Os finlandeses em Savônia tradicionalmente cultivavam com um método de corte e queima que era mais adequado para a agricultura pioneira em vastas áreas florestais. Este também foi o método de cultivo usado pelos índios americanos de Delaware. [33]


Exploração e liquidação de Delaware - História

Small Planet Communications, Inc. + 15 Union Street, Lawrence, MA 01840 + (978) 794-2201 + Contato

Composto por apenas três pequenos condados, Delaware (anteriormente Nova Suécia) atraiu muita atenção, ganância e conflito nos séculos 17 e 18. Delaware fica em uma localização estratégica e desejável na foz do rio Delaware, na costa oeste da Baía de Chesapeake.

Delaware lutou por seu lugar no mapa colonial, mas era uma colônia destinada a feitos poderosos. Quando chegou a hora de lutar pela independência das treze colônias, Delaware atendeu corajosamente ao chamado.

Saiba mais sobre o estado de Delaware.

Antes da chegada dos primeiros colonos europeus, o Vale do Rio Delaware era habitado por um grupo de índios americanos chamados Lenni Lenape, que significa "povo original". Renomeada como "Delaware" pelos colonizadores europeus, a tribo Lenni Lenape era composta por três grandes grupos estabelecidos entre o sul de Nova York e o norte de Delaware. O grupo mais ao sul viveu ao longo da parte norte do atual Delaware. O povo Nanticoke vivia no sudoeste de Delaware ao longo do rio Nanticoke. O Minqua veio da Pensilvânia para negociar peles ao longo do rio Delaware.

Aprenda sobre os habitantes nativos
de Delaware, os índios Lenape.

VOCÊ SABIA?
Em 7 de dezembro de 1787, Delaware
foi o primeiro estado a ratificar o
Constituição dos EUA e aderir ao sindicato.
Clique para ler mais novidades de Delaware.

Acredita-se que os espanhóis e portugueses tenham feito explorações da costa de Delaware no início do século XVI. Henry Hudson, um explorador inglês contratado pela Companhia Holandesa das Índias Orientais, descobriu o que viria a ser conhecido como o rio Delaware e a baía de Delaware em 1609. Ele não explorou a área, entretanto. Um ano depois, o capitão Samuel Argall - o mesmo inglês que sequestrou Pocahontas - foi desviado do curso e navegou para a baía de Delaware. Ele nomeou um ponto de terra na costa oeste de Cape De la Warr, em homenagem a Thomas West, Lord De la Warr, o primeiro governador da colônia inglesa da Virgínia. O rio e a baía de Delaware foram explorados em profundidade pelo capitão Cornelius Hendricksen. Em seu diário, Hendricksen registrou comércio com índios americanos por vários tipos de peles e couros, incluindo zibelina, lontra, vison e urso.

Em 1631, o primeiro assentamento europeu foi tentado quando a Companhia Holandesa das Índias Ocidentais, em parceria com um capitão mercante holandês chamado David Pietersen de Vries, estabeleceu uma indústria de cultivo de tabaco e caça às baleias em Zwaanendael perto da atual cidade de Lewes. No primeiro ano, o assentamento foi destruído e seus habitantes foram massacrados no que se acredita ser o resultado de uma disputa que começou sobre o roubo de uma folha de flandres com o brasão de armas holandês.

o Kalmar Nyckel, o navio alto de
Delaware, partiu da Suécia
em 1637 transportando 24 passageiros para
estabelecer a primeira permanente
assentamento no Vale do Delaware,
Nova Suécia.

Ao contrário da maioria das empresas inglesas, a Companhia Holandesa das Índias Ocidentais esperava expandir o comércio em vez de estabelecer colônias. Em contraste, em 1637, acionistas suecos, holandeses e alemães formaram a New Sweden Company para estabelecer uma colônia. Vários membros da Companhia Holandesa das Índias Ocidentais ofereceram seus serviços à Companhia da Nova Suécia. Um deles, Peter Minuit, o ex-Diretor-Geral de New Netherland, liderou uma expedição de colonos da Suécia e partiu no final de 1637 no Kalmar Nyckel e Fogel Grip.

Eles chegaram em março de 1638, e a expedição construiu um posto comercial fortificado no local da atual Wilmington. Foi batizado de Fort Christina em homenagem à rainha sueca de 12 anos. Minuit garantiu uma escritura dos índios americanos pelas terras que se estendem ao norte de Bombay Hook até o rio Schuylkill, que deságua no rio Delaware no que hoje é a Filadélfia. O território foi denominado Nova Suécia.

Mais de uma dúzia de expedições chegaram à Nova Suécia nos 17 anos seguintes, trazendo emigrantes suecos, finlandeses e holandeses, bem como suprimentos. Terra adicional foi comprada e a colônia se espalhou para os dois lados do rio Delaware.

A Nova Suécia prosperou durante o governo de Johan Björnsson Printz (1643–1653). Os colonos construíram fortes, moinhos e casas ao longo do rio Delaware. O comércio com grupos indígenas americanos locais floresceu e muitos colonos plantaram tabaco.

VOCÊ SABIA?

As cabines de toras foram introduzidas pela primeira vez em
América pelos suecos em Delaware.

Em 1651, a Companhia Holandesa das Índias Ocidentais tentou obter o controle da Nova Suécia, acreditando que a empresa ainda detinha os direitos sobre a área. Peter Stuyvesant, governador da Nova Holanda, liderou as tropas holandesas na construção do Forte Casimir, no atual Novo Castelo. Sob a administração do último governador da colônia, Johan Rising, a Nova Suécia capturou o forte em 1654. Stuyvesant voltou em maior número no ano seguinte e recuperou todo o território, incluindo o forte. Este ato efetivamente acabou com a influência e participação sueca na colonização da América do Norte.

Os ingleses e holandeses estavam em constante competição entre si pelo comércio e pelas colônias na América do Norte. Essas tensões eventualmente levaram a uma série de guerras entre eles, travadas entre 1652 e 1674. Em 1664, a Inglaterra assumiu o controle de toda a Nova Holanda e das possessões holandesas no Vale do Delaware. Isso levou à Segunda Guerra Anglo-Holandesa, que resultou na posse dos territórios holandeses pela Inglaterra em 1667. O Duque de York anexou Delaware, e por 18 anos foi governado pela Inglaterra como parte da colônia de Nova York (antiga Nova Holanda) . Os habitantes suecos e finlandeses foram autorizados a manter suas terras, praticar sua própria religião e ser governados por seu próprio sistema judicial. Colonos da Inglaterra e das colônias inglesas vizinhas mudaram-se para Delaware, fazendo com que a população aumentasse rapidamente.

Leia sobre William Penn,
fundador da Pensilvânia e
proprietário de Delaware por um
breve período.

Em 1682, William Penn, um quacre que fundou a colônia vizinha da Pensilvânia, solicitou terras da Inglaterra para uma rota marítima para a Pensilvânia. O duque de York consentiu e concedeu a Penn todas as terras entre New Castle e Cape Henlopen, que incluíam a maior parte do que hoje é Delaware. Delaware então passou a ser propriedade da Penn, mas era administrado separadamente da Pensilvânia como uma entidade distinta chamada de "três condados de Delaware" ou "condados inferiores". Charles Calvert, ou Lord Baltimore, fundou a colônia de Maryland e argumentou contra William Penn, reivindicando para si as terras ao longo do rio Delaware. Sua reivindicação foi negada pela Inglaterra, o que gerou uma longa disputa entre Penn e Baltimore (e gerações posteriores de pessoas influentes em Maryland e Pensilvânia) sobre questões de limites. A discussão sobre a fronteira Maryland-Delaware foi finalmente encerrada em 1769 com a demarcação da linha Mason-Dixon.

Penn assinou um tratado de paz com Lenni Lenape em 1682, e nenhum outro conflito ocorreu entre os índios americanos e os colonos de Delaware até a Guerra da França e dos Índios em 1754. Muitos dos índios de Delaware se mudaram para o oeste na tentativa de ficar à frente da colonização branca , e a maioria deles já vivia em Ohio na época em que estourou a Guerra Francesa e Indígena ao longo da costa.

O povo de Delaware queria independência da forte influência da grande população de quacres da Pensilvânia. Os Quakers, ou Sociedade de Amigos, era um corpo religioso que dominava a Filadélfia, e o povo de Delaware temia o rápido crescimento econômico da colônia da Pensilvânia. Eles também não estavam dispostos a se tornar propriedade de Lord Baltimore e Maryland.

Finalmente, o estabelecimento de uma assembleia separada foi concedido ao povo de Delaware. A cidade de New Castle sediou a primeira reunião da assembléia em 1704, servindo como capital de Delaware. Embora a assembleia aprovasse leis e tomasse decisões sobre a economia e o governo nos três condados de Delaware, a colônia ainda estava tecnicamente sob a autoridade do governador da Pensilvânia.

Saiba mais sobre 1999
Delaware comemorativo
quarteirão do estado.

Explore fatos e símbolos
de Delaware.

Delaware foi o estado que decidiu declarar ou não a independência da Grã-Bretanha. A história foi feita quando um delegado chamado César Rodney cavalgou seu cavalo de Delaware à Filadélfia para lançar o voto de Delaware a favor da independência da Grã-Bretanha. Passando por trovões, relâmpagos e uma onda de calor, o ato de coragem de Rodney é retratado no bairro comemorativo do estado de Delaware, publicado pela Casa da Moeda dos Estados Unidos em 1999.


Pensilvânia e Delaware

William Penn fundou a Colônia da Pensilvânia em 1681 e trouxe dissidentes Quaker da Inglaterra, País de Gales, Holanda e França.

Objetivos de aprendizado

Examine os fatores religiosos e sociais que moldaram o estabelecimento da colônia da Pensilvânia e Delaware

Principais vantagens

Pontos chave

  • William Penn fundou a Província da Pensilvânia, também conhecida como Colônia da Pensilvânia, na América Britânica em 1681 por carta real.
  • As terras que compreendem Delaware foram controladas primeiro pelos suecos, depois pelos holandeses e, finalmente, pelos britânicos na Pensilvânia.
  • Os Lenape e Susquehanna ocuparam as terras antes da colonização.
  • A Carta de Privilégios exigia negociações justas com os índios americanos. Quakers inicialmente interagiram respeitosamente com Lenape e Susquehanna, entretanto, futuras buscas por terras pelo governo britânico levaram à violência e hostilidade.
  • Quakers foram os primeiros colonizadores da Pensilvânia. A Carta de Privilégios estendeu a liberdade religiosa a todos os monoteístas, e o governo foi inicialmente aberto a todos os cristãos.

Termos chave

  • Quakers: Membros da Sociedade Religiosa de Amigos, também chamada de Igreja dos Amigos & # 8217.
  • William Penn: Um empresário imobiliário inglês, filósofo e fundador da Província da Pensilvânia, a colônia inglesa da América do Norte e a futura Comunidade da Pensilvânia.
  • Condados Inferiores: Outro termo para Colônia Delaware nas Colônias Médias da América do Norte de 1682 até 1776.

O Estabelecimento da Pensilvânia e Delaware

Em 1681, William Penn fundou a Província da Pensilvânia, também conhecida como Colônia da Pensilvânia, na América Britânica por carta real. Penn recebeu a carta patente para a Pensilvânia de Carlos II e trouxe dissidentes Quaker da Inglaterra, País de Gales, Holanda e França. O governo colonial, estabelecido em 1682 por Penn & # 8217s Frame of Government, consistia em um governador nomeado, o proprietário, um Conselho Provincial e uma Assembleia Geral maior.

O nascimento da Pensilvânia, 1680: William Penn, segurando um papel, de pé e de frente para o rei Carlos II, na sala de café da manhã do King & # 8217s em Whitehall.

Entre 1669 e 1672, Delaware foi um condado incorporado na província de Maryland. Diz-se que a linha Mason-Dixon resolveu legalmente contornos vagos entre Maryland e a Pensilvânia e concedeu Delaware à Pensilvânia. A Colônia de Delaware tornou-se uma região da Província da Pensilvânia, embora nunca legalmente uma colônia separada. De 1682 a 1776, era parte da propriedade da Penn e era conhecido como Lower Counties. Em 1701, ganhou uma assembleia separada dos três condados superiores, mas continuou a ter o mesmo governador que o resto da Pensilvânia. Delaware, no entanto, acabaria se revelando muito independente, levando à separação definitiva da Pensilvânia e ao status de pioneiro único como o primeiro estado da América, sem vinculação ao destino de nenhuma das províncias.

William Penn pediu e mais tarde recebeu as terras de Delaware do duque de York. Penn teve dificuldade em governar Delaware porque a economia e a geologia eram praticamente as mesmas de Chesapeake, e não de seu território na Pensilvânia. Ele tentou fundir os governos da Pensilvânia e Delaware. Representantes de ambas as áreas entraram em confronto e, em 1701, Penn concordou com duas assembleias separadas. Os Delawareans se reuniam em New Castle e os da Pensilvânia se reuniam na Filadélfia. Delaware continuou a ser uma espécie de caldeirão e foi o lar de suecos, finlandeses, holandeses e franceses, além dos ingleses, que constituíam a cultura dominante.


Condado de Sussex, Delaware - História - Acordo Europeu

O Condado de Sussex foi o local do primeiro assentamento europeu em Delaware, um posto comercial denominado Zwaanendael no local atual de Lewes. Em 3 de junho de 1631, o capitão holandês David Pietersen de Vries desembarcou ao longo da costa do Delaware para estabelecer uma colônia baleeira no meio do Atlântico do Novo Mundo. A colônia durou apenas até 1632, quando De Vries partiu. Ao retornar a Zwaanendael naquele dezembro, ele descobriu que as tribos indígenas haviam matado seus homens e queimado a colônia. Os holandeses então começaram a colonizar a área mais uma vez.

Embora os holandeses e suecos tenham retornado para reassentar a região do rio Delaware já em 1638, grande parte da área da Baía de Delaware ao sul do que é hoje a cidade de Newcastle permaneceu incerta até 1662, quando uma concessão de terras em Hoernkills (a área ao redor do Cabo Henlopen, perto da atual cidade de Lewes) foi feita pela cidade de Amsterdã para um grupo de menonitas. Um total de 35 homens deveriam ser incluídos no assentamento, liderados por um Pieter Cornelisz Plockhoy de Zierikzee e financiados por um empréstimo considerável da cidade para estabelecê-los. Este assentamento, estabelecido em 1663, foi organizado em parte por ameaças da colônia inglesa de Maryland ao oeste, começando a reivindicar seus próprios direitos sobre a área. O momento do assentamento foi terrível, pois os ingleses arrebataram New Netherland dos holandeses em 1664, e fizeram com que o assentamento fosse destruído naquele mesmo ano, com relatórios britânicos indicando que “nem um prego” foi deixado lá.

O assentamento na área depois que os ingleses expulsaram os holandeses foi lento. Os suecos e finlandeses que se estabeleceram na área desde os dias da Nova Suécia geralmente receberam bem os ingleses e tiveram permissão para ficar. Os poucos holandeses encontrados na área foram presos como prisioneiros e enviados para a Virgínia como escravos. Lord Baltimore também incentivou os habitantes de Maryland a se mudarem para o leste para colonizar a área. Mas a terra estava longe de outros assentamentos mais estabelecidos e não atraía muitos novos colonos. Também estava se tornando um deserto tentador para os piratas se esconderem das autoridades e saquearem regularmente os colonos em busca de suprimentos.

Os holandeses recapturaram brevemente o território em 1673 como parte da Terceira Guerra Anglo-Holandesa. At that point, they established courts in the town of New Castle and at the Hoerkill at the southern end of the territory, effectively creating two counties out of the territory. After the war concluded in 1674, the Delaware territory was again returned to the English, at which point it was placed under the control of James Stuart, Duke of York. In 1680, the Duke reorganized the territory south of the Mispillion River as Deale County with the county seat at New Deale (modern-day Lewes) and created a third county, St. Jones, out of the Delaware territory between the Mispillion River and Duck Creek. In 1682, English King Charles II awarded the Delaware territories to William Penn in settlement of family debts, and Penn reorganized all three Delaware counties: Deale County become Sussex County, and St. Jones County became Kent County, in recognition of Penn's homelands in Sussex County, England. He brought two hundred people over from Sussex, England as colonists. The town of New Deale was also renamed Lewistown (today known as Lewes). At this time, Penn also claimed that the Delaware territory extended as far south as Fenwick Island. The 'Three Lower Counties' (Delaware) along Delaware Bay moved into Penn's sphere of settlement and became the Delaware Colony, a satellite of Pennsylvania.

But the boundary disputes continued between Pennsylvania and Maryland. Charles Calvert, 5th Baron Baltimore and William Penn both claimed the land between the 39th and 40th parallels according to the charters granted to each colony. Whereas Penn claimed the Delaware territories extended to Fenwick Island, Calvert claimed the Colony ended at Lewes with all the land south of the settlement belonging to Somerset County.

In 1732 Charles Calvert signed a territorial agreement with William Penn's sons that drew a line somewhere in between the two colonies and also renounced Calvert's claim to Delaware. But Lord Baltimore later claimed that the document he signed did not contain the terms he had agreed to, and refused to put the agreement into effect. Beginning in the mid-1730s, violence erupted between settlers claiming various loyalties to Maryland and Pennsylvania. The border conflict between Pennsylvania and Maryland would be known as Cresap's War.

The issue was unresolved until the Crown intervened in 1760, ordering Frederick Calvert, 6th Baron Baltimore to accept the 1732 agreement. As part of the settlement, the Penns and Calverts commissioned the English team of Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon to survey the newly established boundaries between the Province of Pennsylvania, the Province of Maryland, Delaware Colony and parts of Colony and Old Dominion of Virginia.

Between 1763 and 1767, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon surveyed the Mason-Dixon line settling Sussex County's western and southern borders. After Pennsylvania abolished slavery in 1781, the western part of this line and the Ohio River became a border between free and slave states, although Delaware remained a slave state.

In 1769 a movement started to move the county seat from Lewes to the area then known as Cross Roads, the present day site of Milton. The current county seat of Georgetown was settled upon on January 27, 1791 after residents in western Sussex County successfully petitioned the Delaware General Assembly to move the county seat to a central location as roads at the time made it too difficult to reach the county seat in Lewes. Georgetown was not a previously established town and on May 9, 1791, the 10 commissioners headed by President of the State Senate George Mitchell negotiated the purchase of 76 acres (310,000 m2) and Commissioner Rhodes Shankland began the survey by laying out "a spacious square of 100 yards (91 m) each way." Eventually the Town was laid out in a circle one mile (1.6 km) across, centered on the original square surveyed by Shankland and now listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Georgetown was named after Senate President George Mitchell.

Sussex County has been known by several names over the years including Susan County, Hoorenkill or Whorekill County as named by the Dutch prior to 1680 when Kent County broke off, Deale County from 1680 to 1682 after being taken over by the British under James Stuart, Duke of York prior to signing over to William Penn, and Durham County when claimed by the Lords Baltimore during the boundary dispute with the Penn family.

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Delaware County NY Genealogy and History Site

THE only part of the present county which is claimed to have been occupied by white settlers at a date prior to the Fort Stanwix treaty is a small settlement on the East branch of the Delaware river in the present town of Middletown. In the year 1762 or 1763 a small band* of adventurers of Dutch extraction set out from Hurley in Ulster county to explore the lands on the East branch of the Delaware.

(* I am indebted to a communication from Dr. 0. M. Allaben, in Gould's History of Delaware County, for this account of the Middletown pioneers.)

They ascended Shandaken creek, crossed over the mountains forming the divide between the tributaries of the Hudson river and the Delaware, and found themselves in the beautiful valley of the East branch. To their great surprise they found here evidences of a deserted Indian village, which they afterwards learned was called Pakatakan and even traces of European settlements at several places. These latter were doubtless left by the hardy trappers and traders who had forced their way hither in search of beaver skins, and had found at least two homes of the beaver near this place.

The hardy adventurers from Hurley took up farms along this valley, and having made some hasty preparations went back for their families. They obtained warranty deeds for the land from Chancellor Livingston one of the heirs of Johannes Hardenbergh the owner of this tract. The price paid was twenty shillings an acre and the deeds bear the date of 1763. The names of these first settlers, so far as they have come down to us, were the brothers Harmanus and Peter Dumond, Johannes Van Waggoner, Peter Hendricks, Peter Brugher, and Messrs. Kittle, Yaple, Sloughter (now named Sliter), Hinebagh, Green and Bierch. Their farms were chosen along the banks of the East branch, and the vicinity. The settlers were driven off* by the Indians in the Revolutionary war (1778), and the buildings and improvements were destroyed. But soon after the war they returned and resumed their abandoned farms.

The first settlements in both Sidney and Harpersfield took place about the year 1770 and both in like manner were interrupted by the disturbances of the Revolutionary war, which shortly followed. The pioneer of the former of these settlements was Rev. William Johnston a Presbyterian clergyman born in Ireland, and who had resided several years previous to his removal to the Susquehanna valley in the neighborhood of Albany. Mr. Johnston and his son Witter Johnston journeyed by Otsego lake and thence down the Susquehanna, stopping finally at the beautiful flats which are now called Sidney. Here they found a few scattered but friendly Indians, belonging to the Housatonick tribe, which at this time were subject and tributary to the Six Nations. They selected a farm of 520 acres bordering on the river, which was a part of a land patent belonging to Banyar and Wallace, of which they bought the fee simple. In the Revolutionary troubles which soon came on Wallace took the tory side, and his property which the Johnstons had bought, but had not paid for, was confiscated and became the property of the State. On the recommendation of the governor, however, the Johnstons on payment of the balance still due were confirmed in the title to the land they had bought.

The Johnston family occupied their now home in the year 1773, and were followed by other families who soon made a thriving and attractive neighborhood. They were named Sliter, Carr, Woodcock and Dingman. The Sliters intermarried with the Johnstons and in the troubles of the Revolutionary war took with them the patriotic side. But the others became tories and are lost sight of, except that Carr afterward is said to have erected the first gristmill in this vicinity, upon Carr's brook which empties into the Susquehanna a few miles above the Johnston settlement.

In 1777 during the Revolutionary war the Johnston settlement received a visit from Brant and a band of Iroquois Indians. The Susquehanna valley was a frequent resort of these fierce warriors and all the scattered Indians of other tribes which wandered through the region between the Susquehanna and the Hudson were tributary to the Iroquois. Brant and all the Six Nations had made a treaty with the British through Sir William Johnson and had embraced the tory side in the pending controversy. He came with a band of about eighty men. The white settlers held a conference with the redoubtable chief, who announced to them his ultimatum. He gave them eight days in which to leave their homes after which everything would be at the mercy of his followers. If any of the families chose to declare themselves British partisans, he promised them protection and permission to remain in their homes. Under this urgent alternative Mr. Johnston and the other whig families took leave of their little possessions and hurried to Cherry Valley. They were there when the little village was burnt by the Indians in 1778 but the family escaped in time from the massacre, and one of the sons was in the fort which withstood the efforts of the savages to burn or take it.

After the war was over the fugitive families returned in 1784 to their homes at Sidney, and resumed the peaceful and prosperous life which has made Sidney one of the most attractive of all the towns in the county.

It remains to say something about Harpersfield, which is the only other part of the county which was settled by white people before the Revolutionary war. The founders of Harpersfield were a family of Harpers, whose ancestor James Harper migrated from Ireland to Maine in 1720. After successive migrations of the family John, a grandson of the Irish emigrant, settled in 1754 at Cherry Valley in New York. A son of this John named John Jr., was the founder of Harpersfield, and his son, also named John, and was the noted Colonel Harper who was so conspicuous in the border ways of the revolution.

In 1767 the Harpers obtained from the Colonial government permission to obtain from the Indiana a tract of land containing 100,000 acres not before purchased, situated near the headwaters of the Delaware river. After this transaction was complete the Harpers received from the government a deed of the land in 1769. Two years after this, in 1771, Colonel Harper established his family upon this tract and proceeded to divide it into suitable farms for settlement. A considerable number of families from Cherry Valley and old friends from Now England soon after joined them, and the place took on an appearance of prosperity. The first settlers however were subject to some severe trials from the want of food for themselves and their cattle. Their nearest neighbors were thirty miles off at Schoharie, and for gristmills they were compelled to go down the Schoharie creek to the Mohawk. In 1775, however, Colonel Harper erected a gristmill for the convenience of his neighbors. The whole tract was heavily timbered, mostly with maple and beech, and the making of maple sugar was one of the chief early industries. The lands covered by hardwood are always more easily cleared than those covered by pine or other evergreens. The rich and varied farms of Harpersfield came rapidly into conditions of fertility and were soon able to support a widespread and prosperous population.

But before the settlement could attain this condition of prosperity, it was compelled to go through a period of trial during the Revolutionary war, which left its impress for a long time upon its inhabitants and its growth and progress. It was in the summer of 1777 that the approach of Brant and Butler with a band of Indiana and tories made the Harpersfield settlers realize the danger of their position. Some fled to Schoharie and some went back to New England. So that from that time to the close of the war Harpersfield was almost deserted. Occasionally some of the fugitives came back from Schoharie to look after their possessions. Thus in the spring of 1780 Captain Alexander Harper and a number of others went to Harpersfield at the usual sugar making season. Brant and his party of Indians surprised and captured them. Some were killed and scalped, while Harper and several others were carried by a long and tedious march to the British fort at Niagara. There they remained as prisoners in circumstances of fearful misery until the close of the war. Others were taken as prisoners to Quebec where they were kept until under the treaty of peace they were set at liberty.

After the establishment of peace most of the families returned to their homes, which however had been in many cases desolated by the Indians and tories. Other settlers rapidly joined these pioneers, attracted by the sturdy character of the founders, and by the liberal terms on which they could secure farms on which they might settle. From that time down to the present Harpersfield has continued to be one of the most thriving and prosperous of the towns in the county.

The period following the war was everywhere active in emigration. The soldiers who had spent many years in fighting for their country had lost that attachment to their homes which made abandonment difficult. They had learned of hundreds of places where they could find farms to be taken up and homes to be established. Many of the officers of the army received in lieu of pay which was due to them grants of land from which they expected to realize abundant profits. They did not foresee the times when the fertile Genesee country, and the rich valleys of Ohio would be speedily in demand. But they eagerly accepted the proffered lands still unoccupied in the eastern portions of New York. Poor old General Steuben who had performed such noble service for his American friends, was rewarded with a township named after him in the rough regions of Oneida county. Baron DeKalb was in like manner rewarded with an equally fertile tract of land in St. Lawrence county.

Much of the land in Delaware county had been granted in various tracts before the breaking out of the war. The year 1770 seems to have been amazingly prolific in Delaware county patents. In the note* appended will be found the patents granted in Delaware county by the English Colonial government.

(* List of patents granted by the English Colonial Government, in Delaware county. Hough's Gazeteer, p. 48:
Babington's Patent, 1770, 2,000 acres, Charles Babington.
Bedlington Patent, 1770, 27,000 acres, John Leake and others.
Clarke's Patent, 1770, 2,000 acres, James Clarke.
DeBernier's Patent, 1770, 2,000 acres, John DeBernier.
Franklin Township, 1770, 30,000 acres, Thomas Wharton and others.
Goldsborough Patent, 1770, 6,000 acres, Edward Tudor and others.
Hardenbergh Patent, 1708, --, Johannes Hardenbergh and others.
Harper's Patent, 1769, 22,000 acres, John Harper, Jr.
Kortright Patent, 1770, 22,000 acres, Lawrence Kortright.
Leake's Patent, 1770, 5,000 acres, Robert Leake. Forfeited by attainder.
McKee's Patent, 1770, 40,000 acres, Alexander McKee and others.
McKee's Patent, 1770, 18,000 acres, additional, Alexander McKee and others.
Prevost Patent, 1770, --, James Prevost.
Strasburgh Township, 1170, 37,000 acres, John Butler and others. Forfeited by attainder. Walton's Patent, 1770, 20,000 acres, William Walton and others.
Whiteboro Township, 38,000 acres, Henry White and others. Forfeited by attainder.)

Subsequent to the formation of the State government many tracts were purchased from the State, by land speculators who generally sold but sometimes rented to settlers the farms which they undertook to clear and cultivate. The largest of these tracts was in the western angle of the State, and occupying a region owned by the State of Massachusetts. The two states settled the question of jurisdiction by an agreement that the price of the lands when sold should go to Massachusetts, but that the whole tract should belong politically to the State of New York. The land was in 1791 sold by the State of Massachusetts to Phelps and Gorham but on account of their failure to fulfill the contract, it was resold subsequently to them together with a number of other purchases. Almost all the contents of the counties of the State west of Cayuga lake were included in this territory. Another large tract is usually called the Macomb purchase, situated in Franklin, St. Lawrence, Jefferson, Lewis, Oswego and Herkimer counties. The lands included in these later purchases were usually sold in fee simple to the settlers while much of that in Delaware county, such as the Hardenbergh patent, the Kortright patent, the Livingston patent, the Verplanck tract, etc., were granted on lease.

The settlements formed in the various towns will be detailed in the town histories given below. The pioneers were of varied nationality, and in this respect were a fair sample of the mixed population throughout the State. From Kingston came the Dutch and Palatine Germans and a few of the Walloons, who settled in Middletown along the East branch of the Delaware. The same classes of emigrants had settled the Schoharie valley and thus formed a continuous belt of low Dutch pioneers from Albany up the Mohawk river, thence up the Schoharie creek to its headwaters and. then down the East branch of the Delaware, meeting the little body of Dutch pioneers who had broken through the mountain barriers from Kingston. It is needless to say that these emigrants were industrious, intelligent, and conservative. Like their European ancestry they sought as places of settlement low lying lands, bordering the picturesque streams which abounded in the new continent. There were no considerable number of these Holland emigrants who came into Delaware county. The lands were opened up to settlement too late to take advantage of the Holland period of New York history. This period ended in 1664 when the Dutch possessions in. America were by treaty transferred to England. After that time a few emigrants came from Holland to New York, and the only Dutch pioneers into Delaware county came from the older settlements of the same nationality in other parts of the colony.

The great mass of the early settlers in Delaware county were from New England. They had already learned that the bleak hills where they had at first made their homes were by no means the fertile and productive regions they had anticipated. From the earliest times there was a continuous stream of emigration from the colonies and states of New England, first into eastern New York, then into western New York, and still later into Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and farther west. There was a time, just subsequent to the Revolutionary war, when many of these restless and adventurous New Englanders sought homes near the headwaters of the Susquehanna and the Delaware rivers. The immense town of Franklin which at its organization contained thirty thousand acres of land was largely settled by New Englanders. Sluman Wattles the first settler came thither from Connecticut in 1785 accompanied by his brothers and sisters, and followed by numerous friends who rapidly built up a thriving and intelligent community. The town of Walton was a part of Franklin until 1797, and it too was largely settled by families of New England origin. Dr. Platt Townsend came hither from Dutchess county and brought with him a number of friends from Long Island who like himself had first migrated from Connecticut. This auspicious beginning led many other New England families who were seeking new homes to come into the valleys of the Delaware and the Susquehanna.

Another notable company of colonists came in 1789 consisting of twenty heads of families and two single men from Fairfield county, Connecticut. They were exploring the wilderness in search of a suitable place in which to settle. They came from Catskill and after a long journey reached the head waters of the West branch of the Delaware. Here they found a friend in an old settler named Inman, who aided them to find lands on which they could settle. Part of them located in the present town of Roxbury, which then was the town of Stamford the others found homes in what still bears the name of Stamford in Rome's brook. This has continued to be a most thrifty and prosperous settlement,* and to this day bears the marks of the pioneers who founded it.

(*The names of this company are given in Gould's History of Delaware County as follows: Josiah Patchin, Captain Abraham Gould, Colonel John Hubble, Aaron Rollins, Isaac Hubble, Talcott Gould, Isaac Gould, George Squires, Walter and Seth Lyon, John Polly, Stephen Adams, Peter and Ebon Jennings, Joseph Hill, and one by the name of Gibson. The two unmarried men were David Gould and David Squires. See p. 197.)

The Scotch immigration into Delaware county was principally of a later date. A few came to the region about the time of the Revolution. John More was a Scotchman who came into the country and founded Moresville in 1786. Kortright, so named from Lawrence Kortright who purchased a patent of twenty-two thousand acres from Colonel Harper, was settled principally by immigrants from the north of Ireland and from Scotland. The patent was purchased in 1770 and the settlement, began from that date. But the great mass of the settlers came in during the first twenty years of the present century.

Andes received a large contingent of Scotch immigrants. These were not however the first settlers, who were of Dutch ancestry and came from the Hudson river counties. But a large number of Scotch families came in at various times and settled the Cabin Hill region and some of the valleys towards Bovina. It was this same movement which led many of the same nationality to invade the rough regions of Bovina. They had been preceded in this movement by Elisha B. Maynard a New Englander, who was the first settler, in 1792. But the hardy Scotch crowded into the lands on the headwaters of the Little Delaware, and made the little town, when it was organized in 1820, almost their own. The town of Delhi in like manner contains many families who by ancestry are Scotch. This is especially true of the mountainous region rising from the Little Delaware on the southwest. The section is still called the Scotch mountains from the fact that the greater part of it was settled by Scotch families. It will be observed that in all these settlements of the Scotch, they have chosen the hills and uplands in preference to the fertile valleys. This was partly owing to the fact that they came into the county at a later date when the richer lands along the rivers had been already taken up. But, besides this, and besides their general poverty which led them to select cheap lands, we must attribute their choice of hilly lands to their predilections founded upon the clear mountains from which they came, and for which they retained such fond memories.

It may be said in conclusion that wherever they settled the Scotch proved most thrifty and successful farmers. They were without exception intelligent and religious and lost no time in providing for themselves and their children churches and schoolhouses, such as they had been accustomed to in their old home. As a consequence no parts of the county are more prosperous and progressive than those that have been settled by the Scotch and which are still occupied by their frugal and industrious descendants. Index to Centennial History of Delaware County


Wilmington: Wilson & Heald, 1846. Octavo. Item #026083

312 pages, four plates, 2 plans, folding detailed map at end showing the settlements of the Dutch and Swedes. Not only was this the first history of Delaware but Ferris resolved problems on some of the troublesome names. The name of the island was called Matineconk or Tiniconk, he goes on to note the changes and the development of the first regular trail. He then shows how the settlements of the Swedes developed (note the excellent folding map) and the role of William Penn and then he goes into great detail on the ecclesiastical affairs of the Swedish Church. Just as the rise of Yellow Fever devastated Philadelphia in 1793, even so it was the case in Wilmington. The errata is on the verso of page xi giving the reader the most complete and accurate early history of the state. A very nice copy bound in publisher's brown embossed cloth, spine lettering gilt, some light scattered foxing to plates, text very clean with just a hint of scattered foxing. light wear to corners, previous owner's name in pencil. [Howes F97].


The First State (Official)

Delaware was the first state to ratify the United States Constitution in 1787. There is only one First State and Delaware is it.

"The First State" became the official State nickname on May 23, 2002 following a request by Mrs. Anabelle O'Malley's First Grade Class at Mt. Pleasant Elementary School.

The Diamond State

This nickname for Delaware is echoed in the State Flag. The buff colored diamond serves as a frame for the state Coat of Arms. This nickname originated with Thomas Jefferson who compared Delaware to a diamond small but very valuable. According to the Delaware Government Information Center, Thomas Jefferson described Delaware as ". a 'jewel' among states due to its strategic location on the Eastern Seaboard."

The Blue Hen State

This historical nickname, sometimes Blue Hen Chicken State, originated during the Revolutionary War. According to W.A. Powell's História de Delaware, 1928, the story traces back to a Captain Caldwell from Kent County who carried with him a pair of fighting game cocks. These chickens, descendents of a famous Blue Hen, were well known in Kent County for their superior fighting qualities. It is said that upon seeing these game cocks fight, one soldier cried "We're sons of the Old Blue Hen and we're game to the end" comparing the fighting prowess of the chickens to the fighting prowess of the Delaware soldiers. These regiments from Kent County became known as "Blue Hen's Chickens." This name was soon applied state wide. In 1939, the Blue Hen Chicken was adopted as Delaware's official State Bird.

The Peach State

In the 1500s, the Spanish brought peaches to Delaware. By the 1600s, peaches were so plentiful in the state that farmers used them to feed their pigs. Supported by the Delaware Railroad in the early nineteenth century, Delaware became the leading producer of peaches in the United States. Almost 6,000,000 baskets of peaches were shipped to market in 1875, Delaware's peak production year. Many problems beset peach farmers throughout the latter part of the century. The peach blight, called the "yellows" forced the collapse of the industry and, in the early 1900s, many peach farmers faced bankruptcy.

The Corporate Capital

Delaware has been called the "Corporate Capital" because so many corporations have incorporated in the state because of its business-friendly law. According to the Delaware Division of Corporations (2002), more than 308,000 companies are incorporated in Delaware. This includes 60% of the Fortune 500 and 50% of the companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange.

Small Wonder

A new nickname developed to promote the state's contributions to the nation and its natural beauty.

New Sweden

Refers to the first permanent settlement in Delaware in the present day Wilmington. Delaware was under Swedish rule from 1638 to 1655. The first Swedish settlement was at "The Rocks," on the Christina River, near the foot of Seventh Street. The Christina River was named after the young queen of Sweden as was the fort that was built.

Uncle Sam's Pocket Handkerchief

This obscure nickname probably refers to the small size of Delaware.

Other

Delaware has also been called "The Chemical Capital" and the "Home of Tax Free Shopping."


Settlement and Exploration

Some judgments can be made on the valley from Fremont’s descriptions, from the experience of the Mormon pioneers, and from later explorations such as those by Howard Stansbury and John Wesley Powell. The deposits dropped by Lake Bonneville and by mountain streams provided fertile soil for Euro-mountain streams provided fertile soil for Euro-American agriculture, and the growing season proved ample for temperate region crops. Abundant native grasses provided feed for herds of cattle and horses. Clay beds supplied adobe for their early building, and sufficient trees grew in the mountains and canyons to provide lumber for later construction. The nearby mountains also husbanded sufficient water for agricultural, manufacturing, domestic, and commercial activities. The people found ample supplies of minerals such as salt and coal. In addition, because the Utah settlements were at the crossroads of the principal overland routes to California, the Wasatch and Oasis Fronts became an increasingly attractive commercial location.

However, contrary to another bit of folklore, the Mormons did not tame an uninhabited or unexplored wilderness. Since the time of Rivera, Dominguez, and Escalante, the Spanish and Mexicans had explored and traded in the region. The Mountain Men’s rendezvous had been held here even before forts were built by Robidoux and the Taos Trappers. Fremont and others had described the region. Miles Goodyear had settled Fort Buenaventura at Ogden, probably the first continuously occupied site in the Great Basin.

On July 26, a group of pioneers exploring in southern Salt Lake Valley met a mounted party of about twenty Utes who wanted to trade with them. Shoshonis from the north and Gosiutes from the south and west also frequented the Salt Lake Valley. In the fall, the pioneer party that remained in the valley found that the Gosiutes loved to bathe in the mineral waters of warm springs north of the city. Moreover, the Gosiutes taught John Taylor and other Mormons to harvest sego lily and other roots and sunflower seeds and to make a meal and cakes of ground crickets mixed with honey. The instruction in harvesting roots came in handy during the winter and early spring of 1848 when food was scarce, but the cricket cakes never seem to have tempted the palates of Euro-Americans.

Though the Mormons traded with and learned from the Indians, they also disrupted Native American life. They affixed their permanent settlements to Native American lands and carried diseases against which the Indians had little immunity. The Gosiutes who came to warm springs in the fall suffered from measles, and other Indians died from smallpox. Even though the Indians already inhabited the region, the Mormons did not recognize their title to the land. Brigham Young told the settlers that they must neither buy nor sell land, insisting that the land belonged to the Lord and that it could only be distributed by the priesthood and then only on principles of stewardship. Since The Book of Mormon tells the Mormons that the Indians belong to the House of Israel, they expected the Native Americans to convert to Mormonism and join them as stewards in building God’s kingdom.

As they went about the task of building their new kingdom, the pioneers essentially faced three problems: first, they had to establish a base settlement for growing crops and building homes for themselves and those who followed second, they wanted to find other sites for towns for the thousands who would follow and third, they needed to make arrangements to guide the remaining Saints from Winter Quarters and Kanesville to Utah.

Understanding the task ahead of them, they immediately began to plow and irrigate farms, cut timber and make adobes, and build temporary housing. Even before Young had entered the valley, Orson Pratt and his party had begun plowing and planting in the easily worked sandy loam, and they dammed City Creek and began to irrigate the newly planted fields. Mormon missionaries had seen irrigation in Italy and the Middle East, and members of the Mormon Battalion had watched the Mexicans and Pueblos irrigate in New Mexico and California, so they understood how to dam streams and channel water in ditches to irrigate the crops. Even though they had started very late in the season, the Mormons continued planting crops throughout the remainder of July and into August. Crews built a road up City Creek Canyon to reach trees to supply lumber for homes, barns, and fences. Establishing a fort for protection against the Indians at the site of Pioneer Park near Third South and Third West, they constructed twenty-nine log cabins. Since trees were scarce and expensive to harvest, they located deposits of clay, opened pits, and manufactured adobes from which they build most of their homes.

Shortly after Young arrived, the Saints began to lay out Salt Lake City, using a pattern that they would follow in subsequent settlements. Commencing at the southeast corner of Temple Square—currently South Temple and Main Street—where Orson Pratt established the base line and principal meridian for subsequent surveys in most of Utah, the pioneers marked out the city in ten-acre blocks. Brigham Young said that he wanted to be able to turn a span of oxen around without backing them up, so they left room for streets to be forty-four yards wide.

Since they planned a community for Saints rather than a subdivision for speculators, they subdivided the blocks into one-and-a-quarter-acre town lots. The leaders followed Joseph Smith’s plat of the City of Zion rather loosely and invested Salt Lake City with a suburban character. Each resident owned a town lot, and using the New England and European pattern, they situated the large farms outside the city. On their lots in the city, the people built barns, sheds, wallows, and coops for domestic animals, and they planted vegetable, fruit, and flower gardens. They dug ditches to coax the mountain streams down each side of the street so the people could divert water for irrigation and household use.

To add to the information they already had about this region, the Mormons sent out several exploring parties. Brigham Young led a party on a circuit around the Salt Lake Valley in late July Albert Carrington took two others to the Point of the Mountain in southern Salt Lake Valley, near the present site of the Utah state prison and Jesse C. Little, Samuel Brannan, and James Brown led a contingent northward along the valleys near the Great Salt Lake into the Bear River Valley. Brannan and Brown then turned west to California while Little threaded his way through the Bear River gorge into Cache Valley in northern Utah. Later in the year, Parley P. Pratt led a party south into Utah Valley, westward across the divide into Cedar Valley, southwestward into Rush Valley, and northward to Tooele Valley before returning around the north end of the Oquirrhs to Salt Lake City.

In late August, Brigham Young and a large party consisting of all the Twelve, except Parley P. Pratt and John Taylor, who had not yet reached the valley, left for Council Bluffs to prepare for the succeeding season of immigration. Young chose John Smith, the uncle of Joseph Smith, as stake president to govern the settlement in his absence. Smith exercised both ecclesiastical and civil authority with two counselors and a high council of twelve. In general, all those in the valley, including Pratt and Taylor after they arrived, recognized the authority of Smith and his colleagues in civil affairs.

Settlers continued to pour into the valley throughout the summer and fall of 1847. By winter, nearly 2,000 persons had reached Salt Lake City. Some 16,000 remained in Kanesville and Winter Quarters, but most of them joined the others in Utah by 1853.


The Cushetunk Settlement

In the early 1750s, North America was still mostly an uncivilized place, and while open warfare between the British and the French in their struggle to control the new continent was still a few years away, the growing tension between the two great powers and the unhappiness of the displaced Native American tribes made it a hostile place, as well.

While the upper Delaware valley was still a rugged frontier wilderness, western Connecticut was becoming overpopulated and farmland there was becoming scarce. Some of the Connecticut residents who were feeling squeezed out of their home colony began to form companies for the purpose of purchasing lands elsewhere. The Susquehanna Company, formed in 1754, was one such group, consisting of about 600 men from what would become the Nutmeg state. These men purchased from the Iroquois confederacy a large tract of land along the Susquehanna River, paying the Natives mostly with whiskey.

Another group, calling itself the Delaware Company, and led by hardy men named Skinner and Thomas and Tyler, purchased of the same Iroquois nations a tract of land adjacent to the Susquehanna purchase and running eastward to the Delaware River. By 1757, this group had formed a small settlement on the new property. The place became known as Cushetunk.

Within a few years, the Delaware Company was soliciting additional settlers through a prospectus that claimed they had established three separate communities, each extending ten miles along the Delaware River and eight miles westward. These new communities consisted of thirty cabins, three log houses, a grist mill and a saw mill. Because of the hostile nature of the frontier at the time, Cushetunk was surrounded by a stockade for protection, and looked every bit as much a fort as it did a peaceful community.

The protection of the fortification was largely unneeded until the uprising of the Delawares following the death of the elderly sachem and self-proclaimed king, Teedyuscong under mysterious circumstances in April of 1763. Avenging war parties under the command of Teedyuscong’s son, Captain Bull, swooped through the Wyoming Valley and into the Delaware Valley, attacking every settlement along the way. The riverfront community at Ten Mile River was destroyed, and the 22 or so inhabitants massacred. The warriors then made their way upriver to Cushetunk, at one time a revered place where their ancestors had held green-corn dances and dog festivals, and ballgames, and where, according to some legends, their sainted chieftain Tammanend, or Tammany, had spent much of his life.

The Delaware under Captain Bull had every intention of destroying Cushetunk and vanquishing those living there just as they had done downriver, but the stockade made their task a bit more difficult. The Cushetunk settlers caught sight of the marauders as they approached, and many were able to gather inside the blockhouse. Two of the men, Moses Thomas and Jedidiah Willis, were killed by the Delawares before they could enter the fortification, and that left only one man, Ezra Witter, in defense of the settlement. Fortunately for Witter, he had the assistance of a number of strong, capable women who managed to keep their heads as the war party gathered outside.

The women were armed with muskets and under Witter’s direction fired at the opportune time, killing one of the war party and intimidating the others by convincing them that the stockade was well defended. Witter’s deception proved fortuitous, and the raiding party left without further incident, taking their lone casualty with them.

The upper Delaware remained a hostile place for another few decades. One historian has described the area as it existed as late as 1779, when the Revolutionary War Battle of Minisink was fought just north of what is today Barryville, as “a howling wilderness.” “There was not a wilder, lonelier place on the whole frontier,” Isabel Thompson Kelsay writes in “Joseph Brant: Man of Two Worlds,” “a place where wolves gathered by night but men were seldom seen.” Still, the stockade that was Cushetunk was never put to the test again.


Assista o vídeo: Drone Wilmington Delaware. Delaware River (Julho 2022).


Comentários:

  1. Bernon

    Bravo, essa excelente ideia é necessária apenas a propósito

  2. Colyn

    informações maravilhosamente úteis



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